Planar-Chiral Hydrogen-Bond Donor Catalysts / Nejlevnější knihy
Planar-Chiral Hydrogen-Bond Donor Catalysts

Kód: 13414639

Planar-Chiral Hydrogen-Bond Donor Catalysts

Autor Jakob Schneider

This thesis focuses on the first synthesis and application of planar-chiral [2.2]paracyclophane-derived hydrogen-bond donor catalysts, thereby inducing a unique chiral motif into the emerging field of thiourea organ ... celý popis

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Anotace knihy

This thesis focuses on the first synthesis and application of planar-chiral [2.2]paracyclophane-derived hydrogen-bond donor catalysts, thereby inducing a unique chiral motif into the emerging field of thiourea organocatalysis. Reaction acceleration through hydrogen-bond catalysis has made a significant impact on the field, rendering the development of potent catalyst structures extremely valuable. Based on the [2.2]paracyclophane scaffold, mono- and bi-functional thiourea catalysts were prepared. The rigidity of the [2.2]paracyclophane structure leads to a unique setup of the substituents. In pseudo-geminal position to the thiourea moiety, a hydroxy group was selected and introduced as the second functionality. In a 12-step synthesis, the enantiopure hydroxy-substituted [2.2]paracyclophanylene thiourea was obtained. Furthermore, efficient access to enantiopure pseudo-geminally substituted 13-amino-4-bromo[2.2]paracyclophane was developed. The aminobromide was employed in cross-coupling reactions to yield arylated amino[2.2]paracyclophanes, exhibiting a broad range of electronic and steric features useful for organocatalytic applications. The developed catalysts were applied in asymmetric organic transformations and proved most useful in the transfer hydrogenation reaction. The hydroxy-substituted thiourea catalyst particularly exhibited catalytic activity and stereoselectivity. To shed light on the mode of action of this class of hydrogen-bond catalysts, various analytic methods were conducted. Through extensive crystallographic and NMR complexation experiments, the binding properties of the catalysts were investigated in terms of their interaction with hydrogen-bond-accepting functional groups. Furthermore, quantum chemical DFT and ab initio calculations were undertaken to explore the favored conformations of [2.2]paracyclophane-derived thioureas. The combined findings revealed substrate-dependent activation via single or double hydrogen bonding between the NH groups of the thiourea and the respective substrate. Furthermore, a class of readily accessible hydrogen-bond thiourea catalysts was developed, derived from amino acids. Their steric and electronic features were modulated by their degree of substitution at the carbinol carbon center. All catalysts were applied in the asymmetric transfer hydrogenation of nitroolefins, furnishing the products in up to 99% yield and 87% enantiomeric excess.

Parametry knihy

Zařazení knihy Knihy v němčině Naturwissenschaften, Medizin, Informatik, Technik Chemie Chemie - Sonstiges

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